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EDUC 201

School & Society

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  •    The goal is to prepare students to enter mainstream English classrooms (a transition usually completed within two or three years) by providing a portion of instruction in children's native language to help them keep up in school subjects, while they study English in programs designed for second-language learners.
  •    The bulk of federal Title VII grants must support this approach, requiring only that some  amount of native language and culture be used.
  •    TBE refers to a range of approaches from stressing native-language development to nothing more than the translation services of bilingual aides.
  •    Studies have shown that English is the medium of instruction from 72 to 92 percent of the time in TBE programs.
  •    TBE is referred to as a compensatory model meaning it is compensating for students' needs or as subtractive bilingualism attempting to replace a child's native tongue with English as quickly as possible.
  •    TBE is associated with low level of proficiency in both languages and underachievement in school.

Maintenance or developmental bilingual education:

  •    The goal is to preserve and enhance students' skills in the mother tongue while they acquire a second language.
  •    Maintenance bilingual education is considered an enrichment model, adding to students' linguistic abilities or additive bilingualism, continuing the development in both languages.

Submersion Programs:

  •    Submersion is also referred to as "sink or swim."
  •    Students who speak languages other than English receive no special language assistance.
  •    Submersion is a violation of federal civil rights law based on the U.S. Supreme Court case Lau v. Nichols (1974).

Enrichment Immersion Programs:

  •    Enrichment immersion programs focus on developing second language abilities of students who speak the majority, dominant language (English speakers learning Spanish).

Structured Immersion Programs:

  •    Structured immersion programs focus on developing second language abilities of students who speak a minority language (Spanish speakers learning English).
  •    Structured immersion programs is supported by some U.S. Department of Education officials.
  •    Structured immersion programs can easily become submersion programs because they rely heavily on the use of English over developing or maintaining the first language.

Alternate Immersion Programs:

  •    Alternate immersion programs are most often referred to as "sheltered English."
  •    Students receive second-language instruction that is "sheltered" from input beyond their comprehension, first in subjects that are less language-intensive, such as math, and later in those that are more language intensive, such as social studies.
  •    Lessons can be presented in one language one day and then the second language the next day.

Concurrent Translation Programs:

  •    Teachers shifts between languages to communicate each idea.
  •    Concurrent translation programs are wide spread.
  •    Researchers have discredited concurrent translation programs.
  •    Children often ignore the second language.
  •    Teachers tend to favor one language or the other, usually not developing both languages.
  •    Teachers tend to not make English intelligible.

Adapted from:

Crawford, J. (1991). Bilingual education: History, politics, theory, and practice, Second Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Bilingual Educational Services, Inc.


Last updated by Jim Vandergriff 6/13/02 10:51 AM

jvanderg@knox.edu