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From "Sebastian Cabot's Map of the World." 1544. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (college.hmco.com/history/mosaic).  Landmarks around the coast include the "Magdalena River," the "Gulf of St. Thomas," "low land," and "mountains." Most of Africa's major rivers have not been charted beyond the coasts, so their twists and turns are merely speculative. Meanwhile, near the center stands the mythical Christian ruler, Prester John. Bearing the cross, his supposed realm still lured many explorers, missionaries, and merchants into voyaging to Africa. The continent's interior also reveals strange and fanciful creatures, black African kings, and diminutive pygmies. The real contours of the African interior would not be filled in by Europeans until well into the nineteenth century.
The Port of Lisbon, "Gateway to All of India, East and West," ca. 1600.  By now at least 100,000 African slaves had been brought here for resale.  From Thomas, SLAVE TRADE, plate #31.
An African artist's view of a well armed Portuguese merchant who arrived in Benin around the year 1500 and obtained five slaves in exchange for a horse.  From Thomas, SLAVE TRADE, plate #24.
Elmina, the first great stone castle built by the Portuguese on the Gold Coast of Africa (in 1482/83), captured by the Dutch in 1637.  Slaves were shipped out of this port for 350 years.  From Thomas, SLAVE TRADE, plate #33.
From http://college.hmco.com/history/mosaic
Four phases in the development of the transatlantic slave trade.
Adapted from Philip D. Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade (Madison, 1969).
SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=G009
Comments
Four maps showing numbers of slaves transported from Africa to New World areas over period 1451-1870; thickness of arrows indicates numbers of slaves to each major area. This image is a composite of 4 separate maps published in Curtin.
West and Central African Slaving Regions (with today's national borders).
What you see labeled herre as the Bight of Benin is called the “Slave Coast” by Thornton. Adapted from: Theresa Singleton, The Archaeology of the African Diaspora in the Americas (Glassboro, New Jersey: Society for Historical Archaeology, 1995).
SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=A007
Comments
Line drawing of modern map, showing countries of West Africa; also, coastal slaving regions, e.g., Senegambia, Upper Guinea,Gold Coast, Bight of Biafra.
"How the King of Congo Gives Audience to Ambassadors."
From D. O. Dapper, _Description de l'Afrique . . . Traduite du Flamand_ (Amsterdam,1686; 1st ed., 1668), p. 353. (Copy in the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University; also, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-30842) 
SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/
Caption, "comment le roy de congo donne audience aux ambassadeurs (how the king of congo gives an audience to ambassadors)." Dapper describes how, in 1642, the King received Dutch emissaries: "The King was in a chapel built of thick earth that was covered with leaves and greenery. A copper chandelier with many arms holding lit candles was suspended from the middle of this little building and illuminated all of it. The King was wearing a gold brocade robe and wore three thick gold chains around his neck; he wore a carbuncle on his right thumb and two larger emeralds on his left hand. A gold cross was attached to the left sleeve of his robe . . . . At his sides were two pages . . . . The throne was an arm chair of velvet and on it was embroidered 'Don Alvarez King of Congo' . . ." (Dapper, p. 352; our translation). In an informed discussion of Dapper as an historical source, Adam Jones writes "there is virtually no evidence" that Dapper "took much interest in what sort of visual material was to accompany his text," and that it was the publisher, Van Meurs, "who probably did all the engraving himself." With respect to the plates, in particular, Jones concludes: "For those interested in seventeenth-century black Africa rather than in the history of European perceptions, few of the plates showing human beings and artefacts are of any value . . . . [and] originated solely from Van Meurs' imagination . . . .[although] they have been used as historical evidence in modern works" (Decompiling Dapper: A Preliminary Search for Evidence (History in Africa [1990], vol. 17, pp. 187-190).
The Battle of Ambuila, 29 October 1665, depicted by African artists in glazed tiles in the 17th-century hermitage of Nazare', Luanda.  The decisive victory by Portuguese troops from Angola in this battle led to the destruction of the old Kingdom of Congo and a prolonged civil war.  From Boxer, PORTUGUESE SEABORNE EMPIRE, following p. 194.
Drawing by Giovanni Antonio Cavazzi (1621-1678) of a West African king, greeting European visitors while seated on one of his retainers.  Cavazzi was an Italian priest who worked with the Capuchin mission to northern Angola from 1654 to 1667; he later returned to Africa to work in the Kingdom of Kongo from 1672 to 1674.  Cavazzi's account of his time in Africa was published after he died as _Istorica Descrizione de' Tre Regni Congo, Matamba, et Angola_ (Milan, 1690); his original drawings are in his manuscript, located in a private collection in Modena, Italy, with a microfilm copy in the Special Collections Department of the University of Virginia Library.
SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/
European "factorys" (i.e., trading posts) at Savi, Guinea, 1720s.
From Jean Baptiste Labat, Voyage du Chevalier des Marchais en Guinée . . .fait en 1725, 1726, & 1727 (Amsterdam, 1731), vol. 2 , between pp. 40-41, In Thomas Astley (ed.), A New General Collection of Voyages and Travels (London, 1745-47), vol. 3, plate 9, facing p. 64. (Copy in Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library; also Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-106828)
SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=3-064
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Detailed plan or "prospect of the European factorys" shows surrounding town, compounds (factories) of Portuguese, French, and English; also, palace compound and various of its courts and buildings. In Labat (vol. 2, between pp. 40 and 41), this illustration is titled "Comptoirs des Européens a Xavier" and about 50 buildings and locales are individually identified and named--far more detail is given than shown here in the Astley edition. "The city of Savi . . . was about four miles in circumference. It was so populous that the throngs of people made it difficult to pass along the streets . . . . The daily markets featured all sorts of European and African commodities. Near the European compounds was a square shaded by tall trees where the English, French, Dutch, and Portuguese directors, merchants, and sea captains sat and transacted daily business, much like a European mercantile exchange" (Robert Harms, The Diligent [Basic Books, 2002], p. 156). Savi, the predecessor of the town of Whydah/Ouidah, was the capital of the Hueda Kingdom, c. 1670-1727.
The King of Benin in a procession of musicians and soldiers outside his capital city, ca. 1686.  He altered the policy of his ancestors, who refused to participate in the slave trade, and his descendants became some of the world's richest exporters of slaves.  From Thomas, SLAVE TRADE, plate #22.
"The King of Dahomey's Levee," engraving published in Archibald Dalzel, _The History of Dahomey: An Inland Kingdom of Africa_ (London, 1793), facing p. viii.  The king is shown seated on his throne, speaking justice to subjects who cower.  The commentary notes that he is surrounded by "Amazons," i.e., women soldiers, and other members of his court.  On the right British visitors, probably slave traders, are being entertained.  King Tegesibu of Dahomey earned 250,000 pounds sterling a year from the sale of slaves to European merchants, an income significantly greater than that of any English duke. 
SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/
Catholic missionary celebrating mass in Sogno, Kingdom of Kongo, in the 1740s. From Paola Collo and Silvia Benso (eds.), Sogno: Bamba, Pemba, Ovando e altre contrade dei regni di Congo, Angola e adjacenti (Milan: published privately by Franco Maria Ricci, 1986), p. 115. SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=sogno115
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Missionary in vestments conducting mass at altar in forest clearing; several alter boys and local chief or village head ("sova") kneeling in worship in front of alter. This source in Italian is a modern printing of a 1747 manuscript (located in the Biblioteca Civica of Turin) which describes Capuchin expeditions to the Kingdom of Kongo. The watercolor paintings record moments in the daily lives of missionaries Bernardino Ignazio and Gaspare da Bassano, who were resident in Sogno from 1743-1747. Sogno (Sonyo in English) was a province of the kingdom. The illustrations and accompanying manuscript were done by Ignazio. (Thanks to James Sweet for assistance in interpreting the source.)
Capuchin missionary being entertained by village head in Sogno, Kingdom of Kongo, in the 1740s. From Paola Collo and Silvia Benso (eds.), Sogno: Bamba, Pemba, Ovando e altre contrade dei regni di Congo, Angola e adjacenti (Milan: published privately by Franco Maria Ricci, 1986), p. 181. SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=sogno181
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The village head or chief ("mani") and the Capuchin missionary are seated on stools in front of a house; villagers bring provisions, presumably gifts for missionary. One of the Africans is kneeling, holding a cross. Caption notes that the head of the village has offered a house to the missionary for the period of his stay in the village; only the village head and missionary are allowed to sit; the man kneeling with the cross is the interpreter. This source in Italian is a modern printing of a 1747 manuscript (located in the Biblioteca Civica of Turin) which describes Capuchin expeditions to the Kingdom of Kongo. The watercolor paintings record moments in the daily lives of missionaries Bernardino Ignazio and Gaspare da Bassano, who were resident in Sogno from 1743-1747. Sogno (Sonyo in English) was a province of the kingdom. The illustrations and accompanying manuscript were done by Ignazio.
Capuchin missionary burning "idol house" in Sogno, Kingdom of Kongo, in the 1740s.
From Paola Collo and Silvia Benso (eds.), Sogno: Bamba, Pemba, Ovando e altre contrade dei regni di Congo, Angola e adjacenti (Milan: published privately by Franco Maria Ricci, 1986), p. 163.
SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=sogno163
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Capuchin missionary putting torch to "fetish house"; some villagers are observing, others are fleeing. Some of the objects used by a magician, e.g., snakes, goat heads, claws, are shown in foreground. "Catholic priests," writes James Sweet, "had little tolerance for African rituals and practices. Across Central Africa, priests burned 'idol houses' and 'fetish objects' in grand public displays meant to demonstrate the impotence of African spirits and religious leaders" (Recreating Africa [University of North Carolina Press, 2003], p. 110). This source in Italian is a modern printing of a 1747 manuscript (located in the Biblioteca Civica of Turin) which describes Capuchin expeditions to the Kingdom of Kongo. The watercolor paintings record moments in the daily lives of missionaries Bernardino Ignazio and Gaspare da Bassano, who were resident in Sogno from 1743-1747. Sogno (Sonyo in English) was a province of the kingdom. The illustrations and accompanying manuscript were done by Ignazio.
Cotton cloth of the style called "indienne," manufactured in Nantes in the 18th century.  Here we see a perhaps crude effort to appeal to consumer tastes in West Africa.  From Thomas, SLAVE TRADE, plate #40.
Male ("cavaliere") and female ("dama") figures in full regalia, smoking pipes; background shows houses and compound ("casa de nobili").  The image is taken from Girolamo Merolla, _Breve e succinta relatione del viaggio nel regno di Congo nell' Africa Meridionale_ (Napoli, 1692; 2nd ed. 1726, 1727).  Merolla lived in Kongo during the 1680s.
SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/
"The First Day of the Yam Custom:" The King of Ashanti sits on the right on a chair of ebony and gold beneath the "state umbrella" in 1817. From Thomas E. Bowdich, Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee (London, 1819), between pp. 274 and 275 (reprinted Frank Cass, 1966).
SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/
Comments
"The first day of the yam custom," a colored engraving (drawn by Bowdich and engraved by R. Havell & Son) showing procession, king's retainers, onlookers. On the right of the image, the king is seated ("in a chair of ebony and gold") under the "state umbrella" (with the elephant on top); the flags of several European nations (Britain, France, Denmark) are to the right and left of the king's throne. The image shown here is the center portion of a large fold-out showing many details of this important public cermony. The right -hand section (not presented here) shows, among other activities, European guests seated and observing the ceremony. "The yam custom is annual . . . [it] is like the Saturnalia; neither theft, intrigue, or assault are punishable during the continuance, but the grossest liberty prevails, and each sex abandons itself to its passions" (Bowdich, p. 274; a detailed description of the ceremony, including the illustration, is given in chapter 5).
Chained slaves captured for the East African trade in 1861.
From David and Charles Livingstone, _Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi and its Tributaries; and of the Discovery of the Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa, 1858-1864_ (London, 1865, facing p. 356; reprinted New York, 1866, facing p. 376). SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/return.php?categorynum=3
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Men linked by forked logs, children and women attached by chains or ropes, with their African guards armed with guns. Caption reads: "Gang of Captives met at Mbame's on their way to Tette." The scene was witnessed in July, 1861. Mbame was a village chief, friendly to Livingstone. Tette/Tete, a village (now a town) on the Zambezi River, located in present-day Western Mozambique Tette/Tete, a village (now a town) on the Zambezi River, located in present-day Western Mozambique was the last Portuguese outpost on the Zambezi. While in Tette, a slave party passed through the village: It was composed of "a long line of manacled men, women, and children . . . . the black drivers, armed with muskets, and bedecked with various articles of finery, marched jauntily in the front, middle, and rear of the line . . . [the women and children were fastened by ropes but each adult male] had his neck in the fork of a stout stick, six or seven feet long and kept in by an iron rod which was riveted at both ends across the throat" (pp. 355-357). This image was published in Harper's New Monthly Magazine (vol. 32 [Dec. 1865-May 1866], p. 719) not long after the appearance of the New York edition to accompany an article, "Livingstone's Last African Expedition" (pp. 709-723); the article gives a summary account of the Livingstones' "Narrative of an Expedition." The captives shown in this illustration were destined for the East African trade. However, the image has been frequently employed to illustrate the transatlantic slave trade, and has been widely reproduced in modern books, never, to our knowledge, with a citation to the original source. In S. Drescher and S. Engerman, A Historical Guide to World Slavery (Oxford Univ. Press, 1998), p.291, the Harper's reference is erroneous. Compare this image with image reference C017. The English artist, Thomas Baines, accompanied the Livingstones and made a number of drawings while he was with them --from June 1858 to November 1859. However, since Livingstone writes that the slave coffle scene was witnessed in 1861, the drawing that formed the basis for the engraving (executed by J.W. Whymper) may not have been done by Baines, but may have been based on a photograph taken by Charles Livingstone or another member of the expedition. In the preface to the "Narrative of an Expedition," David Livingstone writes that the illustrations in the book come from "drawings taken by the artist who was attached to the expedition. These sketches, with photographs by Charles Livingstone and Dr. Kirk, have materially assisted in the illustrations" (p. vii). For materials on Thomas Baines, his participation in the Zambezi expedition, and samples of his work see J.P.R. Wallis, Thomas Baines: His Life and Explorations in South Africa, Rhodesia, and Australia 1820-1875 (Capetown, 1976).
Enslaved Black in Mayombe Forest, Angola, 1787.
From Louis de Grandpré, Voyage a la cote occidentale d'Afrique, fait dans les années 1786 et 1787 (Paris, 1801), vol. 2, facing p. 49. (Copy in Library Company of Philadelphia)
SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/return.php?categorynum=3
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Caption, "Noir au bois Mayombe." The author, a French Naval officer who was in the Angola region in 1786-87, gives a lengthy description of the slave trade in this area. The African slave traders, he writes, go far into the interior to acquire slaves, yet they speak the same language "and only differ in their dialect or pronunciation. Slaves are brought to the coast in several ways: three or four will be conducted by around 20 traders. Five or six of these traders march in front . . . the others follow, and since the trail is very narrow . . . it is difficult to escape. . . . . for those who try to resist, they tightly tie their arms behind their backs with a rope . . . There are those who not only resist, but who are able to free themselves. For others who defend their freedom and fight the traders, the latter place a forked branch which opens exactly to the size of a neck so the head can't pass through it. The forked branch is pierced with two holes so that an iron pin comes across the neck of the slave . . ., so that the smallest movement is sufficient to stop him and even to strangle him . . ." (pp. 48 -49; our translation).  Slaves sold to the French were largely destined for St. Domingue.
Sale of enslaved Africans and transport to a slave ship, ca. 1760.
Chambon, Le Commerce de l'Amerique par Marseille (Avignon,1764). (Copy in the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University)
SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=C001
Caption, "marche d'esclaves" (slave market); engraving made from author's description. Scenes depicted (our translations), top,1) Negroes for sale in a public market; 2) Negro slave examined before being purchased; 3) an Englishman licking a Negro's chin to ascertain his age, and to determine from the taste of his sweat if he is sick; 4) Negro slave with the brand of slavery on his arm. Bottom: 5) slave ship lying in the harbor waiting for the trading to be completed; 6) chaloupe loaded with newly purchased slaves transporting them to the ship; 7) Negroes on shore wailing and crying at the sight of their loved ones and friends being embarked
"Branding a Negress," mid-19th century.
From Brantz Mayer, Captain Canot; or, Twenty years an African slaver....(New York, 1854), facing p. 102. (Copy in Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library) SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=H006
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Caption, "Branding a Negress"; shows two European men and a black woman, one of former is branding the latter on the back. It is unclear if this illustration is intended to depict an activity on the African coast or in the New World; in any case, it appears to be incorporated into a larger image, with additional figures added, published in William O. Blake, The History of Slavery and the Slave Trade (Columbus, Ohio, 1857; facing p. 97; see image Blake1 on this website). With respect to branding, Canot/Conneau wrote in 1827: " A few days before the embarkation takes place the head of every male and female are shaven. They are then marked . . . with a hot pipe sufficiently heated to blister the skin. Some [purchasers] use their initials made of silver wire. . . . . this disagreeable operation is done only when several persons ship slaves in one vessel . . . . [The branding] is done as lightly as possible, and just enough for the mark to remain only six months; when and if well done, it leaves the skin as smooth as ever. This scorching sign is generally made on the fleshy part of the arm to adults, to children on the posterior" (Theophilus Conneau, A Slaver's Logbook or 20 Years' Residence in Africa [Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1976), pp. 81-82; for another version of this, see Henry Howe (ed.), Life and Death on the Ocean [Cincinnati, 1856], p.526). The British military officer, John Duncan, describes branding of enslaved captives in Dahomey in the mid-1840s. The people were led onto the beach, before being placed aboard canoes that would take them to the waiting slave ships, "and the gang on each [coffle] chain is in succession marched close to a fire previously kindled on the beach. Here marking-irons are heated, and when an iron is sufficiently hot, it is quickly dipped in palm-oil, in order to prevent its sticking to the flesh. It is then applied to the ribs or hip, and sometimes even to the breast. Each slave-dealer uses his own mark, so that when the vessel arrives at her destination, it is easily ascertained to whom those who died belonged" (Travels in Western Africa in 1845 & 1846 [London, 1847; reprinted London, 1968], vol. I, p. 143). Another version of this image is shown on the website of the Mary Evans Picture Library (London), with an attribution to The Pictorial Times (London), 9 August 1845.
A French slave ship of the 18th century, built in La Rochelle; it is lightly armed and built for speed.  From Thomas, SLAVE TRADE, plate #43.
Inside the hold of a slave ship, ca. 1815.  From Thomas, SLAVE TRADE, plate #52.
"The decks of a slave ship," illustration from the ESSAY ON THE SLAVERY AND COMMERCE OF HUMAN SPECIES, published in 1786 by the abolitionist Thomas Clarkson.
http://miley.wlu.edu/hist366/
Revolt aboard a Slave Ship, 1787
From William Fox, A Brief History of the Wesleyan Missions on the West Coast of Africa (London, 1851), facing p. 116. SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=E007 Shows crowded top deck of slave ship, ship's crew firing guns on slaves; some Africans diving overboard. This colored illustration (in a copy of the Fox book located at Widener Library, Harvard University) was first published in black and white in Carl B. Wadstrom, An Essay on Colonization, particularly applied to the Western coast of Africa... in Two Parts (London, 1794, 1795; reprinted New York, A.M. Kelley, 1968). Every slave ship captain's worst nightmare, an all-out rebellion (ca. 1820).  This rebellion is obviously failing; the heavily armed crew has rallied on the high poopdeck, and despairing rebels have begun to commit suicide by jumping into the ocean.  From Thomas, SLAVE TRADE, plate #55.
American slave traders from Newport, Rhode Island, carousing in Surinam, ca. 1755; the company includes Joseph Wanton, later Governor of Rhode Island, and Esek Hopkings, later the commander of the U.S. Navy.  From Thomas, SLAVE TRADE, plate #27.
Slaves working on a mine on Hispaniola in the 16th century; the Spaniards' search for gold on this island provided the first impetus for the trans-Atlantic slave trade.  From Thomas, SLAVE TRADE, plate #59.
The slave market at Rua do Valongo in Rio de Janeiro, ca. 1800.  From Thomas, SLAVE TRADE, plate #58.
Slaves work in a diamond mine in Brazil.  From Thomas, SLAVE TRADE, plate #64.
Sugar cane cultivation, Antigua, West Indies, 1823.
From William Clark, Ten Views In the Island of Antigua, in Which are Represented the Process of Sugar Making.... From Drawings Made by William Clark, During a Residence of Three Years in the West Indies (London,1823). (Also published in Ladies' Society for Promoting the Early Education of Negro Children [London, ca. 1833]; image shown here is taken from a copy in the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University). SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=NW0051
Comments
Caption: "Holeing a Cane-Piece, on Weatherell's Estate," shows first gang of slave men and women performing the most common method of preparing fields for the planting of sugar cane.  A black foreman is surpervising the work.
The sugar cane harvest in Antigua, West Indies, 1823.
From William Clark, Ten Views In the Island of Antigua, in Which are Represented the Process of Sugar Making.... From Drawings Made by William Clark, During a Residence of Three Years in the West Indies (London,1823). (Also published in Ladies' Society for Promoting the Early Education of Negro Children [London, ca. 1833]; image shown here is taken from a copy in the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University). SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=NW0054
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Caption: "Cutting the Sugar Cane, on Delap's Estate...," men and women in first gang, black driver supervising; white manager/overseer on horseback.
Sugar plantation mill, Antigua, West Indies, 1820s.
From William Clark, _Ten Views In the Island of Antigua, in Which are Represented the Process of Sugar Making.... From Drawings Made by William Clark, During a Residence of Three Years in the West Indies_ (London,1823). (Also published in Ladies' Society for Promoting the Early Education of Negro Children [London, ca. 1833]; image shown here is taken from a copy in the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University). SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=NW0008
Comments
Original caption is: "A Mill Yard, on Gamble's Estate...." Shows a functioning sugar mill with sails into the wind; canes being brought in ox-pulled carts, slaves "heading" canes into the mill rollers, women stacking cane bunches in foreground; black driver to left and at base of windmill, white owner or manager in lower left overseeing the scene.
Slaves work on a tobacco plantation in Virginia in the 17th century.  From Thomas, SLAVE TRADE, plate #62.
Slaves working a cotton gin in the U.S. South, ca. 1790.
From Harper's Weekly (Dec. 18, 1869), p. 813. (Copy in Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library) SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=HW0050
Comments
Caption: "The First Cotton Gin". Shows two black men operating the gin, women carrying bales, children helping; also two white men. Illustration accompanies an article (p. 814) describing the construction of this gin, a model that preceded the one invented by Eli Whitney in 1794. A version of this image was later published in Charles C. Coffin, _Building the Nation_ (New York, 1883), p. 76.
"The Coffle Gang" near Paris, Kentucky, 1850s.
From Anon., The Suppressed Book About Slavery! Prepared for Publication in 1857 (New York, 1864), facing p. 49. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-30798) SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=NW0249
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Caption, "The Coffle Gang"; led by white on horseback and black musicians at the front. An eye-witness account of the scene depicted in this illustration is given on pp. 164-65 of this abolitionist book; the scene described is of "about forty men, all chained together. . . . Behind them were about thirty women, in double rank, the couples tied hand to hand...."
The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavas Vassa, the African. Written by Himself (London, 1789 ). (Copy in the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University; also, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-54026) SOURCE: http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/details.php?filename=I032
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Engraving. Frontispiece from first edition of Equiano's Narrative. Equiano, an Igbo from present-day eastern Nigeria, was kidnapped from his natal village. In 1757, at about the age of 11 or 12, he was transported from the Bight of Biafra to Barbados, where he briefly stayed--unsold-- and then was taken to Virginia where he remained about a month. His new master, a British Naval officer, took him to London and gave him the name Gustavas Vassa. When in his mid-forties, he wrote his "narrative" to arouse in Britain's Parliament "a sense of compassion for the miseries which the slave-trade has entailed on my unfortunate countrymen." For details and other references to works relating to Equiano, see Jerome S. Handler, Survivors of the Middle Passage: Life Histories of Enslaved Africans in British America, Slavery & Abolition, vol. 23 (2002), pp. 25-56.