CLS 248-01: Greek Archaeology and Art
Spring Semester, 2005

Gerald V. Lalonde
ARH 311B | x4264 | | Office Hours: MWF, 11-12; 3:15-4:05; TTh, 2:30-4:05 or appt.


With Appendix on Discussions and Presentations


     The usual mode of instruction will be lecture illustrated by slides, but the active engagement of the class through questions and discussions about the current topic will be welcome, moreover, encouraged. Toward the end of the semester all students will have the opportunity to present the results of their research projects to the class.

Required Texts
     W. R. Biers, The Archaeology of Greece , 2nd ed., Cornell U. Pr. 1996.
     P. Green, Ancient Greece: A Concise History (not required if you have had a college-level course in the history of ancient Greece).

     Green's book will provide a short and interesting overview of Greek history and should be read in its entirety in the first two weeks of the semester. If you want a more comprehensive survey, standard are J.B. Bury and R. Meiggs, A History of Ancient Greece, 4th ed. or N.G. L. Hammond, A History of Greece, 3rd ed. The definitive source on Greek history is the Cambridge Ancient History (2nd ed.). If you would like to read the Greeks themselves in translation, the list for Hum.101 would be a fine start. If you have done that, read more of the same authors and add Hesiod and Herodotus.
     Biers is the chief text for the course. The readings from it, as assigned in the schedule below, are best done closely in advance of the lectures with which they are paired. A fair coverage of Greek archaeology and art could be gained from the lectures by themselves, but Biers, with text and illustrations covering much of the same subject matter and chronological span as our course, should be helpful for parallel study and review. But the text cannot suffice as a substitute for the lectures, since it does not always cover in the same extent or fashion the material treated in class. Biers's references in footnotes to journal articles, his Suggestions for Further Reading (for each chapter; see pp. 336-338), and his Select Bibliography (pp. 339-340) are good leads to deeper coverage of subjects and possibly material for the term project. Also see his Glossary (pp. 341-344) for useful terminology in this field. The book has a good general index for easy reference. For those who would like added readings tailored specifically to the lecture topics, I will put on two-hour reserve copies of three books (E. Vermeule, Greece in the Bronze Age; R. Higgins, Minoan and Mycenaean Art; J. Boardman, Greek Art) and I list the appropriate pages as optional readings in the Schedules . These are useful for further reading, especially if you must miss a lecture. I should also mention two books by Robert Drews which reflect some good recent scholarship on the two big areas of controversy implicit in their titles: The Coming of the Greeks and The End of the Bronze Age. These are in the library, but will not be on reserve and are not required reading. I will sum up their main ideas at the appropriate time in class. The Burling Library collection on ancient Greek art and architecture is too extensive to print here. Here is just a handful of basic books in the field:

R. Carpenter, The Esthetic Basis of Greek Art
___________ Greek Sculpture
G.M.A. Richter, The Sculpture and Sculptors of the Greeks
R.M. Cook, Greek Painted Pottery
J. Boardman, Athenian Black Figure Vases
___________ Athenian Red Figure Vases: The Archaic Period
W.B/ Dinsmoor, The Architecture of Ancient Greece
D.S. Robertson, Greek and Roman Architecture

     You are encouraged to browse in the library for reading that is supplemental to the lectures or inspirational for the required projects. You can find a lot by searching the electronic library catalogue for books under various subject heading appropriate to Greek archaeology and art. The standard reference annual for all books, articles, and reviews in the field of Classics, including archaeology and art, is Marouzeau, L'Année Philologique (now searchable on line on the Burling Library web pages under "Databases and Indexes," and then "A" in the alphabetical listings). Of the journals that concentrate on Classical and Near Eastern archaeology, our library subscribes to Archaeology (popular but often very useful), American Journal of Archaeology (scholarly and very useful for many topics; also on JSTOR). On JSTOR are Hesperia (the journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens) and the Journal of Hellenic Studies (Burling has the volumes back only to 1980). Other classical journals in our collection that publish articles in Greek archaeology are Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies, Greece and Rome, and Phoenix. For further resources you may want to make a trip to the U. of Iowa main library or art library (catalogues accessible through the Grinnell College library web site). If you use interlibrary loan, you will need to plan well in advance of the paper deadlines. Other than browsing at the shelves, please check out library books even when using them in the library; otherwise they are effectively lost books and others cannot get access to them. Even though you may check books out for the semester, please use and return them as soon as you can, as others in the class may need them.

     If you use material from the internet, you must cite the source in a way that allows me to go directly to it. You may find useful material there, but be warned that there is a much higher percentage of junk than in our library, and you are obliged to exercise the same reasonable skepticism there as you would with paper sources. On the other hand, the internet has an increasing number of reputable sites on classical studies, including Greek archaeology and art. You may find there some useful material for your term paper and illustrations for its presentation. See for example under "Classics Links" on the Classics Department web site (


Research Papers and Class Presentations
     Late in the semester each member of the class will submit a research paper of 8-10 pages and give a spoken and illustrated presentation of the results of the research. The subject of this paper should be something not treated in class, or a more detailed treatment of something touched on in class. Finding a topic that fits the following criteria and is interesting to you is part of the assignment: The paper should be about the archaeology or art of ancient Greece - the philosophical, historical, esthetic or technical features of that art or archaeology. The objective of this paper is quality rather than quantity. The subject must be limited enough in scope to allow for depth of treatment, and this in turn will require that the research be thorough enough to do justice to all aspects of the topic. Therefore the paper will entail considerable forethought and work so as not to result in vagueness, oversimplification, or reliance on too few sources. Your thesis may be derived from the concise, original and thoughtful synthesis of the views of earlier scholars on the subject, and, if you wish, you may engage in some critique or elaboration of that scholarship. Papers will be judged on their content and also on their form, i.e. argument and organization, coherence, style, grammar, spelling, etc. The deadline for the finished version of the paper will be the class period when the presentation is given, and these dates will be assigned according to the course web site's timetable of deadlines for all four stages of the paper and all members of the class (see Schedules). 1) At least four weeks prior to the date of your presentation, you should have a topic and thesis that have been discussed with me and approved. The purpose of this stage is to produce a paper that is not too broad, and for which there is adequate source material. 2) Two weeks before the presentation, a thesis statement, an outline of the paper and a bibliography of sources used are due--not a short and prospective outline, but a detailed retrospective outline and bibliography which show that the research is finished except for possible corrections and additions and that you are ready to write a draft of the complete paper. The outline should include all the step of your argument and the evidence for them; i.e., the paper is an argument of your thesis, and this stage is a detailed outline of that argument. 3) At least one week before the presentation, a first draft of the paper is due. This is not a rough draft; it is your best attempt at a completed version of the paper including notes and bibliography. Please resubmit with this draft the marked copy of thesis, outline and bibliography). 4) The final draft, along with the marked copy of the first draft is to be submitted by the class period when the presentation is given. At each stage of the paper I will return the submitted material promptly with a grade and written suggestions for its improvement. In the process I may ask you to have a conference with me, and I may have you make an appointment at the Writing Lab, where this assignment will be on file.

      I will be glad to discuss your work at any point in addition to the stages noted above. In order for you to benefit from the planned research and writing instruction by having time to improve each stage of the paper, it will be necessary to complete all assigned stages of the project and according to the timetable. Because the presentations are given near the end of the semester, it will not be feasible to give extensions. The grade for this assignment will be a composite of grades for the outline and bibliography, the first draft, the final draft, and the presentation, and thus will reflect improvement made over the various stages of writing.

Depending on the number of students in the course, presentations of the term research will be made in twelve or twenty minute periods from outline or short notes - not reading from a text of the paper or extended prose notes. A period of three to five minutes for questions and discussion will follow each presentation. For guidance in preparing for this assignment please study carefully and well in advance the section of the "Appendix" below on class presentions. Material from the presentations may be on the final exam.

Examinations and Grades
     There will be two exams: A mid-term about the time of our treatment of the Geometric period or the lecture on archaeological tools and techniques (i.e. after topic 9 or 10); A final exam covering the material from the mid-term to the end of semester. Both of the exams will entail writing seven or eight 5- to 10-minute commentaries on each of several slides that have been studied in class. The lectures will feature many more slides than are exhibited in the Slide Galleries, but the slides for examination will be chosen mainly, but not necessarily exclusively, from these galleries. Your comments on the slide exam should cover some of the following points (Not all of these will be appropriate for every slide; they are roughly in descending order of importance;"artifact" here refers any physical remnant of the ancient Greeks. These points will be projected on the second screen during the exam.): 1) Stylistic context, i.e. with regard to the form and content of this artifact and its genre, what gives rise to it, and to what does it give rise? 2) What are some significant esthetic and technical qualities of its form and composition? 3) Approximate chronology - With what period (years, centuries, other chronological schemes) do you associate it? Can you relate chronological and stylistic development (see 1) above). 4) What of significance does the form and content of this example of art or archaeology tell you about Greek history or culture? 5) Provenance - With what area or place in Greece do you associate this artifact? 6) Does this artifact have any particular significance in the history of the scholarship of Greek archaeology or art? 7) Simple description of the material, form, function of the artifact.
     The exams yield 66.6% of the semester grade, the written project and presentation, 33.3% . The completion of all written work is a prerequisite for credit in the course.

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    Spoken presentation of intellectual matters is a skill which, like writing, must be studied and practiced. The following notes are offered as help in preparing for and participating in this academic exercise.

Spoken Presentations
     A number of good ends are served by class members presenting the results of their term research to the group. Above all, it allows presenters to share with classmates and instructor a variety of knowledge about the subject of the course beyond the regular readings, lectures and discussions. Further, the presenter is acquiring the extremely useful skill of formal public speaking from brief notes or an outline. The task of distilling the main points and evidence of the research for spoken delivery will serve as a useful check on the organization of the written form of the work.
Once the student has the research written up in a fairly advanced draft, the determination of what of this material should be presented in a twelve or twenty minute delivery can begin. Time is a premium here and none of it can be wasted on redundancy or wordiness. The informational objectives as well as the order of presentation will be the same for the written and the spoken form. It will not be possible, however, for every detail of a 8-10-page paper to be presented vocally in the allotted time. The process of distilling the paper for spoken presentation is one of testing tentative notes or outlines in timed "dress rehearsals" of the speech. This practice will also allow the presenter to become increasingly comfortable and coherent in transferring the cues of notes outline into speech and fitting the desired points within the limited time. A good presentation presupposes a good paper, but without clear and organized translation of the main ideas into the allotted time, it is possible to make a poor presentation of a good paper. While it is probably more profitable to practice speaking from notes or outline, a more time-consuming and difficult route to the same result is to memorize the speech. This is an exercise with its own peculiar usefulness, but it is quite a different thing from speaking from notes. A memorized speech also requires special oratorical skill if it is to seem spontaneous and lively. Without talent and experience one takes this route at hazard.
     In my experience the most common problems of elocution are excess wording, non-semantic sounds and words (especially current teen blab's asemantic "like'), colloquialism or slang, and excessive informality or witticism (a bit in the right context can be a virtuous). A recent broadcast commercial exemplifies most of these problems very succinctly: "Uh, this Eisenhower guy, was he like in a band or somethin?"
     An author's interest in a subject inevitably grows with the writing of a good paper about it. The projection of this interest to the audience will be enhanced by eye contact, gestures, and expressiveness suitable to the subject. The presenter should freely use slides, PowerPoint, transparency or opaque projections, chalkboard, maps or other visual aids when appropriate, but it is advisable to include these in the dress rehearsal. The smooth coordination of speech and visual props can be tricky, and ill-timed or nervous pointing to an illustration can be distracting for both the speaker and the audience. It may help you a great deal to write cues for the slides and other visual aids in your notes or outline, especially if your are using multiple visual aids, two screens, or dual images on a single screen.
     A logical and profitable sequel to a spoken presentation is a period for questions and discussion. The presenter can prepare for this to some extent by trying to anticipate logical questions. If one has researched the topic thoroughly, one should do reasonably well here. But the speaker should not expect to be able to answer every good question, as they will not all be readily answerable, especially in the fragmented realms of ancient history. The audience for its part can prepare for this exercise by following the presentation closely and making discrete notes on possible questions or points of discussion.


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Department of Classics | Grinnell College
January 22, 2005