FIGURES AND INSTITUTIONS OF GREEK PROTOARCHAEOLOGY
Herodotus (mid-5th c.B.C.)
Thucydides (5th c. B.C.)
Romans (2nd c. B.C.- )
Vitruvius Pollio (late 1st c. B.C.)
Pliny the Elder (A.D.23/24 - 79)
Pausanias (the Lydian?) (fl.ca.A.D.150)
Theodosius (late 4th)
Justinian (6th c)
Renaissance (14th-15th cc.)
Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca) (1304-1374)
Ciriacus of Ancona (ca.1391-1450)
Marquis de Nointel and Jacques Carrey (1674)
J.J. Winckelmann (1717-1768)
James Stuart and Nicholas Revett (1762 - 1816)
Lord Elgin (Thomas Bruce) (1799 - 1812)
Greek War of Independence (First phase) and Philhellenism. (1821-1829)
Greek Archaeological Society - 1837
& HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY OF ANCIENT GREECE*
BRONZE AGE 3000-1100
HELLADIC / MINOAN / CYCLADIC
EH EM EC
MH MM MC 2000-1550
LH LM LC
& PROTOGEOMETRIC 1100-900
323-2ND C.(ROMAN CONQUEST)
All dates are approximate (except 323, the year of the death of
Alexander the Great) and B.C.
LERNA: ARCHAEOLOGICAL LEVELS AND CHRONOLOGY
I - II Neolithic (4th Millennium)
Site abandoned for several centuries
III Early Helladic
II (2500-2200) Building BG (ca. 2300); House
of Tiles (ca. 2200)
LERNA IV Early
Helladic III (2200-1900) Circular Temenos; Patterned
LERNA V Middle
Helladic (1900-1550) Minyan ware users.
VI Late Helladic
(1550-1100) Insignificant site eclipsed by Tiryns
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF ANCIENT TROY (All dates B.C. and approximate)
I 3000-2500 Ten phases; Destruction by earthquake; same inhabitants
apparently continue through Troy V.
II 2500-2200 Seven phases; three successive fortification walls.
Contemporary of Lerna III; Schliemann's treasure found (?) in
level IIg (S's Troy of Priam); destroyed by fire, but no change
III-V 2200-2000 Troy III-V of much diminished importance; successively
destroyed by unknown causes.
VI 1900-1300 Start of Middle Bronze Age. People of new stock,
bringers of horses, take over. Three successive fortifications
of increasing strength and magnificence.(the third with smooth
battered walls). Gateways protected by massive towers. Large houses
supported by pillars and columns. Eighth phase (ca.1300) utterly
destroyed by earthquake (Doerpfeld's Troy of Priam).Same inhabitants
begin humble reconstruction.
Troy VIIa 1300-1260 Destroyed by fire and reduced to ruins; skeletal
remains in houses and streets suggest violence accompanied the
disaster.(Blegen's Troy of Priam)
VIIb 1 1260-1190 Minor number of survivors rebuild.
VIIb 2 1190-1100 Primitive Thracians occupy Troy until end of
Bronze Age when site abandoned for four centuries.
VIII 700-300 Site colonized by Greeks, but never a major city.
IX 300-through the Hellenistic and Roman ages.